Category: Server

MS SQL Server Licensing 3

Standard Edition comes with 2 Licensing Model.

  • Licensed by Core – this refers to your server hardware specification.
    in the guidebook, look for Database Engine (DBE) Capacity Limits.
  • Licensed by Server + CAL – this refers to number of user.

The following indicate the Database Engine (DBE) Capacity Limits for Microsoft SQL Server 2014 – Standard Edition.

  • 4 Socket or 16 Core CPU;
  • 128 GB Memory.

If your hardware specification has exceeded the DBE Capacity for standard edition, you should purchase the Enterprise Edition – which also have 2 licensing model.

As per the Licensing Guide, Enterprise Edition can utilize the OS Maximum Memory capacity; CPU capacity equals to 20 core, or more – up to the OS Maximum capacity.


Read: Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Licensing Guide

MS SQL Server Licensing 1
MS SQL Server Licensing 2


MS SQL Server Licensing 1

For the past 3 years (since 2014), I have been living in the denial when it comes to Database (SQL Server) Licensing.
No resources in the company would open this discussion / training – perhaps there’s nothing to teach about the licensing, nor anyone possess this knowledge want to held accountable for mistakes.

In my customer facing role, have avoided the topic, and asked help from superior, he worked out the investment value at the back office, and I could only provide a blanket answer – there must be a better way.

It’s true, answer is just google away.
To understand the structure of the licensing.


I found this:


There are 3 Edition, I will focus on Standard Edition.

The editions are offered in a straightforward, tiered model that creates greater consistency across the product editions, features and licensing. Enterprise Edition includes all the capabilities available in SQL Server 2014. Business Intelligence Edition includes Standard Edition capabilities, plus all BI capabilities included in Enterprise Edition.




Windows Server – multiple DB

Windows Server

2 for Application with SQL Database

2 for Application with Oracle Database

1 for Active Directory (Windows Clustering)

1 for Disaster Recovery

2 Tape Library, 1 at Production site, 1 at DR site.


AIX Server


The purchasing team requested quotation for AIX server.
Vendor called to clarify what is the setup.

This is what I understand finally.

Production Server:

  • 2 physical servers for Application + Database (Oracle),
  • data stored at SAN Storage,
  • backup to Tape Library.

Disaster Recovery (DR):

  • Different geographical location,
  • Data will be replicated from production to DR.
  • 1 physical servers, 2 Logical Partition (LPAR),
  • 1st LPAR for data replication and disaster recovery;
  • 2nd LPAR for Test Server.


Virtual Machine (VM)


Not an IT person.
But I work with IT / Software.

Not an On-Premise, Legacy Software Person.
But I work with On-Premise Software now.

A question I eavesdrop today:
Does the DR needs another set of licensing?

Based on my boss, there’s a need for two sets license.

I began my research, and to find proof to this answer.
This post, has not talk about the licensing, licensing come later.  Before we go to licensing, we need to know virtualization.

A few terms that’s very ‘popular’ for virtualization:

  1. Hypervisor Source
    A hypervisor, also called a virtual machine manager, is a program that allows multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. Each operating system appears to have the host’s processor, memory, and other resources all to itself.
  2. VM – Virtual Machine Source
    A virtual machine runs a dedicated operating system on shared physical hardware resources. VMs increase hardware utilization, but there are risks.
  3. vmware Source
    VMware, Inc. is a subsidiary of Dell EMC, a division of Dell Technologies, that provides cloud and virtualization software and services, and claims to be the first to successfully virtualize the x86 architecture commercially.
  4. x86
    The X86 compatible hardware of today, regardless of processor count or core count, was designed to run a single operating system.


These are very very brief result, however, it has successfully picture the difference among hardware, software, and management.



(1) we bought a server – the blue box – Intel 6Core Server with 32GB RAM, sounds good?
As of all x86 servers (most common type), we can install 1 Operating System (OS). Therefore – in this case, Windows Server 2012.

(2) someone came into the picture, introduces vmware (just an example, not selling), this software allow us to install second server in the same box we bought.

(2a) we can split the box into 2 (logically), maintain Windows Server 2012, and install a Linux Server.

(2b) we can split the box into 3 (logically), maintain Windows Server 2012, install another 2 servers, e.g. Linux, Solaris.

Yes, Linux has Operating System for Server, sames goes to Solaris.  These names are not common, but they appear on top 5 server OS.  Source

Now these servers that we installed into the box, we call them VM, virtual machines.

We cannot tell from the box that there are 3 servers, because, this “split” is achieved using software virtualization.


Alright, now you have these multiple OS in a box = you have 3 VMs, how are you going to manage them?

How to manage the installation of application, the processing power, etc?

That’s how Hypervisor come into play.
Hypervisor is a virtual machine monitor (hyper-supervisor, haha)

It monitor the VMs, offer management and many other benefits.



(3) The Hypervisor is installed in the box, to enable management of the virtual machines.


This site gives a good, layman explanation to VM, found out more:


Installation of the hypervisor, VMs does not follow my flow chart, it is only giving you an idea of how these component work together.

The risk of having 1 physical server with 3 VMs is not explained, but remember – if the box is burnt, same goes to 3 VMs.

There comes my next topic: Redundancy, Disaster Recovery.

Network Benchmark

What Network Benchmark?


Simple mathematics:
If you have 10 production lines, and 2 pallets outfeed from each line per minute.
Every minute you have (10 lines x 2 pallet / minute) 20 outfeed message in one minute.

If these outfeed, needs to transfer to an automatic storage area, you need to inform another system – WMS – to perform receiving.

So, 20 Receiving Notification.

Now, each of these pallet, needs to keep track of 10 values such as: production line number, product ID, product name, quantity, batch number, manufacturing date, expiry date, chemical attributes, quality information, ISO certification number.

Data transfer from 1 system to the other system –  is time critical.  Any delay caused by network latency would mean traffic congestion and performance issue.  A Client Server seem to be a safe option to mitigate this risk.

If you already has a good network infrastructure – high speed fiber optic, broadband services, strong partner / supplier, stay put.  Ensure that it can offer round trip respond time (ping) <10ms.


Network Requirement Benchmark:

  • 100 Megabit Ethernet LAN – 750 users connected to WM Administrator + WM Touch (Touch Screen Operator) + WM Mobile (Handheld Devices).
  • A highly active WM Administrator causes 17 KB/s of data traffic – excluding cached data.
  • 17 KB/s = 0.017 Mbps


Network Standards


I am using Fiber Optic at home, provided by TM = Unifi.
I stayed at a high density area, I complain network / internet slowness – latency, I complain Hypp TV malfunction.  Part of the misery came from the “best-effort” internet speed, and hardware limitation.

Manufacturing plant or warehouse is built on big piece of land, far from town, often in a rural area – we enjoy smooth traffic, less restaurants and compromised internet speed.  Client Server – Local Cloud could be the efficient option one can choose.

Being someone from Cloud Computing, I often think and feel I am on a higher level – for months I tried to avoid the topic about Networking, Client Server.  Looking at the options for warehouse / manufacturing plant, I need to learn.


What is Network?

Answer from Wikipedia:
A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media.


Network – Cable Network, or Wireless Network.



The transmission media used to link devices include:

  • Ethernet Cable – the blue or yellow cable on your office desk
  • Fiber Optic – the transmission media used by TM Unifi
  • Radio waves – the wireless connection

Look at your office desk, the blue or yellow cable, where you can connect to your laptop, or computer – offers instant connection to the Local Area Network.

Ethernet  – simply called as LAN, the cable is simply called as LAN cable.

Ethernet can handle about 10,000,000 bits per second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.


10,000,000 bits per second (bps) = 10 Megabit per second (Mbps) for Ethernet

The media and protocol standards that enable communication between networked devices over Ethernet are defined by IEEE 802.3.


Fast Ethernet

Came across a few tender document / RFQ, there is a growing needs for faster speed.

Fast Ethernet offer higher transmission speeds than Ethernet.

Fast Ethernet defined by IEEE 802.3u.

It has raised the Ethernet speed limit from 10 megabits per second (Mbps) to 100Mbps for Fast Ethernet.


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet defined by IEEE 802.3z.

It has raised the Fast Ethernet speed limit from 100Mbps to 1000Mbps for Gigabit Ethernet.


After knowing the above, if you are also Malaysian subscribe to TM Unifi Fibre Optic services, you might be interested to know what kind of speed they offer:

[I am using 10Mbps MYR199, 24 months contract]




Client Server

I used to be a Pre-Sales Consultant for SaaS, where software application sits on a cloud, and provided as a Service.  Knowledge of server became unnecessary as it is managed by principal.  Server capacity will be managed & administered by the Principal, and subscribed by the users.

To me, Client Server was a dinosaur word.
But it appear to me that most of the warehouse operations, they uses Client Server.  And I am here to find out why.

The Topic of my Research – Client Server.


Question I ask myself:  What is Client Server?


Illustrated above, simply put – Client Server means having Server and Client:

  • Server – a Powerful Computer – which is the brain, it is the central for processing data.
  • Client – workstations, computers that is connected to the server.  These are the devices used in the office, in the warehouse, example:
    • Administrator PC,
    • Operator Touch Screen,
    • Operator Mobile / Radio Frequency (RF) Handheld devices.

They are connected to each other within the same Network.


Why Client Server?  What are the benefit?


Unlike P2P (Peer to Peer), Client Server (One Powerful Computer / Server, connected to multiple Client computers) offer a central administration benefits, e.g. Access Rights, Resource Allocations.


Files are stored in the one place – in the server room, a dedicated data storage unit.

Backup & Recovery

Unlike P2P, where we need to create backup from each client computers / workstations; Client Server concept stored files in one place – it makes backup and recovery possible, and efficient.

Addition & Upgrade

Server upgrade / scale up, installation of new system, addition of workstation can be achieved by making changes in the server.



Cloud Computing is a total different animal, if you subscribe to SaaS, all the above should be managed by the principal, server sizing, backup & recovery, administration & upgrade.  You do have a choice to subscribe a higher tier service, often at higher investment.

You need to follow the principal’s upgrade / choice of database and structure – but protected with global accredited service agreement, audited by renowned bodies.